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FAQ
General
1. How can I reach this Organisation ?
2. How should I send feed samples for testing?
3. How can I book Chicks and Hatching Eggs?
4. Do you arrange for transport of Hatching eggs, Chicks , quails, Turkey Poults?
5. How soon we can get Chicks, Quails, Guinea Fowl and Turkey etc., after booking?
6. What are the details of farmers training?
7. What is your Contact Address?
Management
1. What are important points to be stressed during brooding?
2. What are different equipment’s required in poultry and in what quantit?
3. How to maintain water quality?
4. What is the different water sanitizes?
5. What is floor space requirement for different types of  birds in different System of management?
6. What are different systems of Management?
7. What are shed preparation measures before arrival of chicks?
8. What are the brooding requirements ?
9. What are different types of  brooders ?
10. What are steps to avoid feather pecking or cannaloism?
11. When to do debeaking ?
12. What care is required during debeaking?
13. What are technical specifications to be considered while construction of Broiler house?
14. How much heat should be provided to the chicks?
15. What should be feeder space for layers?
16. What is floor space, feeding space and watering space requirement in  layers ?
17. What special care is  required during summer?
18. What special case is required during winter?
Poultry Nutrition
1. How much feed is required to obtain marketable weight in broiler ?
2. Which are the different kinds of feed?
3. Which steps to be taken to minimize the feed wastage ?
4. What are  the sources of feed  ?
5. What measures to be taken to maintain quality prepared feed?
6. How to reduce feed cost ?
7. Average feed consumption layer per day ?
8. Average  feed requirement  per broiler  by 42 days ?
9. Normal FCR for broiler and layer  ?
10. Concepts of C:P ratio and its importance ?
11. Which are the recommended C:P ratio for various classes of chicken ?
12. Why chickens feed requires more vitamins ?
13. Which are the different methods of feeding in Poultry ?
14. Which are the different ways of restricted feeding?
15. Important points for consideration of poultry feed formulation.
16. How to compute a ration for chicken ?
17. Which are the major factors in the feed preparation ?
18. Which are most essential amino acids for poultry ?
19. Inclusion levels in percent for protein, energy, mineral and vitamin supplement?
20. What is ideal calcium : Phosphorous ratio?
21. Which is maximum level of salt in the poultry ratio?
22. Which are the tolerance level of  dietary aflatoxin in various  types of chickens ?
23. Which precautions to be taken against aflatoxin ?
  General

1.

How can I reach this Organisation ?
This Organisation is located 5 Km from the Chandigarh Railway Station, 8 Km from Bus Stand and about 10 Km from the Airport.

2.

How should I send feed samples for testing?
You can send about 500 gm of ground sample along with a letter stating the required parameters and a DD/MO drawn in favour of Director, C.P.D.O (NR),Chandigarh 160002 through post/courier or by hand. 

3.

How can I book Chicks and Hatching Eggs?
You need to send a DD/MO drawn in favour of Director, C.P.D.O (NR), Chandigarh 160002 through post/courier or by hand. 

4.

Do you arrange for transport of Hatching eggs, Chicks , quails, Turkey Poults?
Yes, we arrange for transport of these products through Train and by Air only to different parts of the country. However the required transport charges have to be borne by the customer only

5.

How soon we can get Chicks, Quails, Guinea Fowl and Turkey etc., after booking?
We make every effort to give immediately after booking however a priority list will be made according to the booking dates and distributed accordingly with prior intimation. 

6.

What are the details of farmers training?
Six days Practical Poultry Training is imparted to the unemployed youth/ farmers/ women of northern states. The interested candidates can apply on the prescribed Performa available in the office of this organization. The application on prescribed ma should bear the authentication from State Animal Husbandry Department/ BDO of the area.

Each farmer will be paid a Stipend of Rs. 100/- per day including necessary stationeries. Lodging will be arranged at this Organisation. TA and boarding charges has to be borne by the candidates themselves.

7.

What is your Contact Address?
Director, Central Poultry Development Organisation, (NR), Industrial Area Phase-I Chandigarh 0172-                2655391,460. e-mail: cpdo_chd@yahoo.com. Fax: 0172-2655460.

   

Management
 

1. What are important points to be stressed during brooding?
  1. Proper temperature requirement ie.(70-75 oF)
  2. Proper Ventilation.
  3. Appropriate floor space ie.0.25 sq.ft./ chick in Ist week to be increased to 0.50 sq.ft. by 3rd week.
  4. Clean and sanitized water supply
  5. Quality feed supply.
2. What are different equipment’s required in poultry and in what quantity ?
  1. Feeders: small ones (3 ft. long ) for 50 chicks and(2) big ones- (6 ft. long  for  50 grown up birds. 

  2. Waterers:   small ones ( 2 Lit.cap.) for  chicks-50 and big ones (5 Lit.cap.) for grown up bird-50

  3. Chick guards.

  4. Brooders :- Bulb filament brooder or gas brooder @ 1.25 watt./chick.

  5. Bird cages, Net boxes, egg collection trays for larger bird.

  6. Other: such as medicine measure cylinder   Vaccinators vaccine box, vaccine dropper litter taker etc.

3. How to maintain water quality?
  1. water should be kept dust and dirt free right from the source of water.
  2. Regular cleaning and disinfection of water tanks and pipe lines.
  3. Daily cleaning of waterers.
  4. Regular sanitation of water.
  5. Treatment to reduce hardness and salinity of water.
4. What is the different water sanitizes.
  1. Bleaching powder (Hypochlorite)
  2. Quartanernary  Ammonium compounds.
  3. Potassium paramagnet.
5.

What is floor space requirement for different types of  birds in different Systems of management?

Area in  Sq.ft./bird. Broiler Layer
Deep litter 1 2--  2 1/2
Cage system 0.5  1
Slotted floor 0.66  --
Environmental control 0.33  --
6. What are different systems of Management?
  1. Free range system.
  2. Semi Intensive system.
  3. Intensive system:-
  1. Cage system
  2. Deep Litter system:-
  1. Floor brooding.
  2. Slotted floor.
  3. Environmental control house.
7. What are shed preparation measures before arrival of chicks?
  1. Cleaning and disaffection of house and surrounding.
  1. Dry cleaning after removal of litter.
  2. Wet cleaning with caustic soda /liquid soap/bleaching powder and   water under  pressure.
  3. Blow lamping   of non inflammable excess /material.
  4. Spraying of disinfectants/ fumigation.
  1. Repair of   cracks and crevices.
  2. White washing of shed.
  3. Cleaning and disaffection of water system, feeding  system and all other equipment in use.
  4. Preparation of brooder 24 hours before arrival at chicks.
8. What are the brooding requirements ?
  1. Brooders of size – 1 S.ft. for 25 chicks. Heat sources  @ 1.25 Watt / chick.
  2. Litter material – of good absorbing quality-like saw dust, paddy husk etc.
  3. Chick guards  --2 ½ - 3 ½  feet surrounding the brooder.
  4. Papers or corrugated sheets or gunny cloth to cover litter material.
  5. Feeders and waterers well  spared  around brooder like spokes of cycle wheat.
  6. Curtain to reduce air breeze.
9. What are different types of  brooders ?
  1. Depending on size
  1. Small
  2. big
  1. Depending  on shape
  1. Square
  2. Circular
  3. Hexagonal
  4. Plain top
  5. Slating top.
  1. Depending upon use
  1. Electricity :  Bulb or filament
  2. Gas Brooder
  3. Coal Brooder ie.Shegdces
  4. Sawdust brooder   ie. Brokharis
  5. Kerosene Brooder.
10. What are steps to avoid feather pecking or cannaloism?
  1. Provide aquate floor and feeder space.
  2. Provide quality feed with appropriate calorie- protein ratio.
  3. Avoid injuries to chicks.
  4. Separate injured chicks and treat them.
  5.  Immediate removal of dead birds from shed.
  6. After cannabolism starts debeaking. If not debeaked at  proper time.
11. When to do debeaking ?

Required especially in layers or desi type birds. Can be done at

  1. day old age or

  2. 10 days or

  3. 35 days and

  4. 12-14 weeks.

12. What care is required during debeaking?
  1. Cut Beak in appropriate size ie. Cut upper beak –2/3 and lower beak 1/3 from up
  2. Tongue of bird should mot burn.
  3. Do not cut with junk or very slowly.
  4. Check for any bleeding after debeaking.
  5. Provide sufficient feed in feeder immediately.
13.

What are technical specifications to be considered while construction of  Broiler house?

  1. Maximum Width - 20-25 Ft.

  2. Maximum Length- 200 ft.under Indian conditions.

  3. Centre height       - 10-12 ft.

  4. Side height          -  6-8 ft.

  5. Over hang           - 2 ½  - 3 ft.

  6. Width sides        - built wall

  7. Length sides      -build wall upto 1-1 ½ ft.from floor and Remaining covered with ¾ - 1 inch wire nets.

  8. Raised Platform of 2 ½ - 3 ft/  from surrounding lands.

14. How much heat should be provided to the chicks.
Age Brooding temperature. Room temperature at 1 Mtr. from floor
 0-3 days  36 oC 28 oC
4-7 days 32 oC 26 oC
2nd wk. 28 o 24 oC
3rd  wk 24 o 20 oC
 4th wk 20 oC 20 oC
15. What should be feeder space for layers?
1 – 8 wks - 6 cm
8-16 wks - 10 cm.
16 wks.and above - 12 cm.
16. What is floor space, feeding space and watering space requirement in  layers ?
Age in Wks. Floor space
S.ft./chick
Feeding space
nches// chick
watering space
inches/ chicks.
1 0.2 1.5 0.5
2 0.2 2.0 0.7
3 0.3 2.0 0.7
4 0.4 2.5 0.8
5 0.6 2.5 0.8
6 0.8 3.0 1.0
7 0.9 3.0 1.0
17. What special care is  required during summer?
  1. Keep shed cool by:
  1. Water spinkler, foggets, fans etc.
  2. Wet curtains.
  3. White washing of roof.
  4. Tree and grass plantation around shed.
  1. Provide more floor spaces per bird.
  2. Avoid feeding during hot hours.
  3. Provide wet mash to birds.
  4. Reduce litter depth.
  5. In extremes cases bird doping.
18. What special case is required during winter?
  1. Avoid entry of rain water in shed.
  2. Avoid excessive moisture in litter.
  3. Sanitation and disinfection of drinking water.
  4. Avoid spoilage of feed by excessive moisture.
  Poultry - Nutrition
1. How much feed is required to obtain marketable weight in broiler ?

Feed requires to obtain marketable weight in broiler is 3.5 Kg.(starter 1 Kg. and finisher 2.5  Kg.) for 35-40 days  and weight about 1.5 to 1.7 Kg.

2. Which are the different kinds of feed?

Mash, Pellets, crumbles etc. are the different kinds of feed.

3. Which steps to be taken to minimize the feed wastage ?

Filling 2/3 of feeder adjust height of feeders, beak trimming to minimize the feed Wastage.

4. What are  the sources of feed  ?
  1. Venky’s –Utara feeds
  2. Japna’s feed
  3. Godrej- Agrovet
  4. Premium feeds
  5. Hindustan feeds
  6. Pranor Agro’s – Amrut feeds.
5. What measures to be taken to maintain quality prepared feed?

Proper storage – proper  ventilation ,rat proof house, leakage  proof  godown to be maintain for feed storage and early disposal of feed prepared feed should be taken in to consideration. 

6. How to reduce feed cost ?

Minimize  wastage  (i) Preparation of  least cost  feed by using  locally available ingredients by using standard  feed formulation  procedure.

7. Average feed consumption layer per day ?

Average  feed consumption  is  115-125gm./day  / layer.

8. Average  feed requirement  per broiler  by 42 days ?

Average  feed requirement is  3.2 – 3.5 Kg./42 days/broiler.

9. Normal FCR for broiler and layer  ?

Normal FCR is 1.9 – 2.0 for broiler and 1.8 for layer.

10. Concepts of C:P ratio and its importance ?

It ensures adequate protein intake at all possible dietary metabolizable energy  levels.

  • wider C: P ratio – Higher fat deposition of corcass, hence using in broiler finisher  Stage.
  • narrower  C:P ratio:- lower fat and higher protein deposition on the caress hence sing  for  lean meat production.
11. Which are the recommended C:P ratio for various classes of chicken ?
    C:P ratio
Starter chicken ( 0-8 weeks) -- 135 : 1
Finisher chicken (9-20 weeks) -- 140 : 1
Layer chicken (21 wks onwards) -- 170-180 :1
Starter broiler (0-3 wks.) -- 135: 1
Finisher broiler ( 4-6 wks.) -- 155 : 1
12. Why chickens feed requires more vitamins ?
  1. The gut-flora in chickens do not provide any Vitamin synthesis
  2. Due to higher metabolic rate ,chicken needs higher levels of  Vitamins, which  act as the “spark plugs”  of the vital metabolic reactions in the body.
  3. Intensively kept chickens undergo  many stresses which increases their Vitamin requirements
13. Which are the different methods of feeding in Poultry ?
  1. whole grain  feeding system
  2. Grain and mash method.
  3. All mash method
  4. Pellet method and
  5. restricted or controlled feeding   method.
14. Which are the different ways of restricted feeding ?
  1. skip a day programme ;
  2. alternate day feeding iii).restriction of feeding etc.  Before adopting this practice farmer should know the suit his particular  condition as none of the methods are suitable for all conditions.
15. Important points for consideration of poultry feed formulation?
  1. Feeds must contain all essential nutrients in right amount and proportion required for the purpose for which it is fed.
  2. Chickens of different ages require different  levels of nutrients ,hence only the accepted standards as per age to be followed.
  3. While  selection nutritional value  of  each ingredients should be evaluated vis-à-vis cost.
  4. Ingredients should be grind into proper sizes  in keeping in mind to age of the chicken.
  5. Micro-nutrients and non-nutrient feed additives should be carefully chosen and mixed  up meticulously  for effective  results.
  6. Include agro-industrial by-products to minimize cost and select a variety of   ingredients to make  good deficiency of one by the other.
  7. While selecting an ingredient care should be exercised to judge its optimum level of inclusion as many of the ingredients are likely to be deleterious at higher level.
  8. Fungal infested ingredients should always be avoided to avoid its mycotoxin effects.
  9. Care should be taken to select optimum  C:P ratio  for the purpose  for which feeds are compounded.
  10. Before using  of ingredient /vitamins  its quality to be checked.
16. How to compute a ration for chicken ?

A farmer interested to compounding poultry  mashes  should  have the basic  knowledge  of  various types of  raw ingredients available as to their  efficiency  and  nutrient  composition vis-a vis cost to make  any mash effective for his flock.

17. Which are the major factors in the feed preparation ?
  1. Protein supplement : (Primary source of protein)
  1. Vegetable protein supplement-eg. groundnut cake, soyabean meal, mustard cake, maize gluten etc.
  2. Animal Protein supplement:  eg. fish meal, skim milk powder ,liver meal, meat meal etc.
  1. Energy supplement :
  1. Primary source of energy cereal grains like maize, wheat, miller grains like jowar, milo, bajara ,rice polish etc.
  2. Cereal by products (Diluents, medium energy content and sources of minerals) eg. wheat bran, rice bran, maize grit etc.
  1. Salt
  2. Minerals
  3. Vitamins
  4. Non- nutrient feed additives. eg.  Antibiotic, antioxidants, coccidiostat etc.
18. Which are most essential amino acids for poultry ?

Lysing,   methionine, cystire and tnyplophan are the most essential amino acids for poultry.

19. Inclusion levels in percent for protein, energy, mineral and vitamin supplement?
Protein rich supplement : - Vegetable source - 18-22
    Animal source - 5-8
Energy  rich supplement: - Cereals lmillets - 60-65
Mineral supplements - Calcite - 5
    Standard mineral mixture - 2-3
Vitamin supplement - Standard Vit.A B2 D3    
    Complex    
    Total   100
20. What is ideal calcium : Phosphorous ratio:

2 : 1 is the ideal  Ca : P ratio.

21. Which is maximum level of salt in the poultry ratio:

A maximum  level  of 0.6% salt in the diet of various classes of chickens was Given by I S I Standard.

22. Which are the tolerance level of  dietary aflatoxin in various  types of chickens ?
White Leghorns chicks - 150 ppb
Pure breed Broiler chicks - 200 ppb
Cross breed broiler chicks - 400 ppb
Quail starter chicks - 1300 ppb
Guinea  fowl kitts. - 1500 ppb.
23. Which precautions to be taken against aflatoxin ?

Ammonia treatment of ground nut cake, meal is reported to detoxify the meal safe enough for feeding.  Diets containing higher protein levels, Vit.D 3 and  Magnesium to provide protection against Aflatoxins.  Feed ingredients to be checked for aflatoxin before use to avoid its toxic effect.  Feed / ingredient containing more than 12% moisture should not be  use to avoid fungal growth in it.